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Geology of Latvia


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The exhibition “Geology of Latvia” is composed of two sections – the geological structure of Latvia and the mineral deposits of Latvia.

The section “Geological structure of Latvia” tells the millions of years long and complex story of formation of the territory of Latvia. It introduces visitors to two characteristic elements of the ancient platforms: a crystalline basement and a sedimentary cover. The geological map shows the distribution of sedimentary rocks in Latvia, and the geologic time scale indicates the sequence of periods. The model in the middle of the exposition shows the distribution of the last glacier and some Late and Post-Glacial deposits in Latvia and Scandinavia formed within cracks and along the ice margin under the influence of the melt-water flow. A computer animation demonstrates the formation of lakes and bogs during Holocene – 10 000 years ago until today.

The section “Mineral deposits of Latvia” shows and explains the practical use and distribution of the most significant mineral resources – dolomite, clay, limestone, sand and gravel found in Latvia. The use of mineral resources of Latvia has always developed step-by-step with construction works and building material industry. History of practical use of mineral resources comprises several hundreds to thousands of years, but recognition of their distribution, quality, and quantity has started just a hundred years ago, and geological exploration begun only in the 20th Century. Several items made of these resources are displayed alongside with various specimens.

The exhibition was funded by Latvian Environmental Protection Fund and opened on April 17, 2015.

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